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Full text of "Annual Reports of the Superintendents of the Yellowstone National Park, 1937"

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f /7, 27? 
4 -ZI5 

Vol. // = 



insm. w* m 

. . ARK 


Accidents 31 


-i m 

Animals 25 

Antelone 25 

Aunronriations 13 


Boars (Black) 25 

Bears (Grizzly) 26 

Bighorn Sheep 28 

Birds 29 

Births 47 

Broadcast (Yellowstone and Teton) 11 

Building Fire Protection 23 

Building Maintenance & Construction .... 30 

Buffalo ..... 26 

Bureau of Public Roads 46 


Census, Game 29 

Civilian Conservation Corps 40 

Cooperating Bureaus 45 


Deaths 47 

Deer . 20 


Electrical Department 57 

Elk 27 

Emergency 40 

Engineering 33 

Fishing 5 

Eish Planting 30 

Forest Fires 6 

Forest Fire Protection 23 

Forestry 22 


Game Count 29 

Gasoline Tax 9 

Gardiner Checking Station Fire 9 

General 1 


Hamilton Stores, Inc 43 

Haynes, Inc. 45 

Hay Ranches 24 


Insect Control 22 


Lav; Enforcement 50 


Mechanical Department 38 

Medical Service 44 

Mess 0-oerations 40 

M (cont. ) 

Miscellaneous 47 

Movie ("Yellowstone") 11 

Moose 28 

Museums 15 


National Pari: Airways 4 

Naturalist Department 14 

Nursery 83 

Other Game Animals 28 

Park Operators 41 

Personnel 12 

Personnel (Protection Dept.) 22 

Place Names . 17 

Post Office 45 

Pryor Stores 43 

Protection Department 20 


Ranches, Hay •. 24 

Ranger Activities 20 

Revenues 13 

Roads 6 

Sanitation Department 33 

School 11 

Storehouse Operations 39 


Trail Maintenance 23 

Travel 1 


Utility Building 9 


Visitors 47 


Weather Bureau ..... 45 

Wildlife 25 


Yellowstone Park Cosrpany 41 

Yellowstone Park Library £c Museun Assoc. . 9 & 18 





^v^n:^^^^ 11 ^^ 




- 1937 - 

Edmund B. Ropers, Superintendent 


Up to 1934 the reports of the Superintendent of Yellowstone Rational 
ark have covered the construction season and included the period from 
ctober 1 to Septeriber 30. The 1934 report covered the period frou October 
, 1933 to June 30, 1934, and succeeding reports are expected to cover the 
iscal yeer periods. This report, therefore, for 1937 covers the fiscal 
ear July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1937. 

Shattering all previous records the park finished up its 1930 travel 
eason with a total of 432,370 visitors via the five gateways as compared 
1th 317,998 in 1955 — an increase of 36,'/. This unprecedented travel began 
arly in the park season and continued throughout the four months of June, 
uly, August, and September with little let-down. Of the grand total of 
.•32,570 visitors 412, GOB came by auto or other private transportation, 
hile 19,962 arrived by train and airplane, 19,472 by the former and 490 
iy airplane. -There were 103,809 first-entry recorded as 
tpainst 79,7^0 first-entry automobiles in 1935. The new northeast entrance 
lear Cooke led in the largest percentage of increase cf any gateway, there 
laving entered via that gateway 175.5/' more r-eonle than in 1935, The south 
mtrance was second with an increase of 49.9'-; the west third with 43.7'"; 
;he east fourth with 27.8$; and the north. entrance last with 14.8';'. The 
brave 1 figures for the 1936 season vrere carried through to include 
September 30, while the 1 C Z'J and previous seasons were counted to include 
September 25. Hereafter September. 30 will be regarded as the closing 
late for the travel season. 

Rail travel was registered from every state in the union, Alaska, end 
31 foreign countries, while automobile visitors were registered from all 
states, Alaska, and 23 foreign countries; Illinois ranked first in rail 
travel \ ith 3,092 visitors, New York second v.ith 3,279, Pennsylvania third 
with 1,731, me Ohio fourth with 1,427. ■ In the automobile travel Montana 
led \ ith 37,034 visitors, California was second v.lth 30,894, Illinois next 
feth 21,871, and Utah fourth with 20,792. The all t -time record for daily 
travel was reached on July 4, 1936wher 12,988 persons traveling in 5,435 
automobiles, 145 rail visiters, and 8 motorcycle visitor ;; entered tho park 
on a single day, a total of 13,141 visitors. The previous daily travel 
record of 6,259 visitors and 1,670 automobiles occurred on July 4, 1951, 

The record for this July 4 exceeded the previous record by 110$. 

There was no accurate record kept of the actual number of trailer, 
houses (house cars) that entered the park during the 1936 season, but 
there was an obvious increase over the previous season. Records were j 
kept of this of travel all during the month of August and a 
total of 471 parties were contacted and presented with questionnaires 
for the purpose of securing information as to the trend of trailer 
house travel. Trailer houses were registered from 39 different states) 
and from Canada, and the Philippine Islands. The majority of persons 
using trailer houses were business and professional men, and the cost 
varied from $15 to $6,000 each* More than two-thirds of the parties 
contacted. stated that they used trailer houses as homes for more than 
two months out of the year. 

The 1936 season marked the second year that park visitors have 
been privileged to travel directly to one of the pari: entrances by 
air. The National Parks Airways reported carrying 170 passengers to 
VJest Yellowstone during the 1935 season, whereas approximately 490 
air travelers were landed at the same field in 1936. Park visitors 
were given an opportunity during this season for the first time to 
view the park from the air on regularly organized end scheduled trips, 
This service was furnished by the National Parks Airway-; using VJest 
Yellowstone as a flying base. This organization reported that ap- 
proximately 850 were passengers on National Parks Airways scenic 
tours over Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks > and that 60 
flights were made during the season. 

The 1937 travel season actually got underway on May 15 when the 
rangers at the north avid west gates began the collection of the $3 
motor vehicle license fee. These entrances were opened on May 1, 
and the roads were passable at that time from the two entrances to 
Old Faithful, and from Norris to Canyon and Lake. Exceeding all ex- 
pectations, despite disagreeable, cold, rainy, and stormy weather 
throughout the first half of June, the travel by the end, cf the 
fiscal year had exceeded the same period last year by 11;j — breaking 
all previous records. Should expected travel materialize a new 
record of a half million people will have visited the park by the 
end of the 1937 travel season. 

The unusually mild fall weather permitted travel into the park 
until a late date, and it was not until December 17 that all travel 
was discontinued. The Red Lodge-Cooke approach road was the first 
to close. It was blocked by snow from September 25 to 28, was re- 
opened September 29, closed again October 5, reopened October 7, 
and was definitely closed for the winter on October 23, Unheard 
of 'for any previous year, a trip was made by automobile on November 
29, without chains, around the entire loop and a similar trip was 








tsms i REPORT . - ~_ 


~^n7"the yeis l^iSt- 

193 i to 11936 » a0 °°*f t fJiSe to 

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age of fuiias A f th va rious 
include! the reports oi * 
superintendents in toe annua 
port of jtne Director °^ e 

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graphing necessary. 

i ; . L-. 4-vifl Veil owstone copies 01 tne .oj-j- 

r^Swrto^Wts sincere : 
first issue, and to others *o_ar. 

■nwe^ in havinf comes, .or 
reference purposes. . 
|!i Th-' illustrations in this issue 
ire thtUi of WUli- S. Keams, 
Assistant Naturalist. 

Edmund 3. Rogers 

' i 



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repeated on December 1. Practically all roads in the park were favor- 
able to travel up to December 17 although there was very little travel 
through December. On December 4 the road over Sylvan pass was closed, 
and the Norris-Canyon road was closed on December 7. The Old Faithful 
road was closed on December 17, while the Gardiner-Uest Yellowstone 
road remained open until that date, and the highway from Gardiner to 
Cooke was passable as far as Soday Butte until after the first of the 

The collection of the $3 motor vehicle license fee was discon- 
tinued on November 3 approval having been received to discontinue the 
collection until May 15. 

On April 1 the two park snow plows began the opening of the roads 
and by the first of May travel was permitted via the north and west 
gates. On May 10 the plows reached Old Faithful and continued over 
the Continental Divide as far as Isa Lake in order to give the con- 
tractor an opportunity to start early on the grading project from Isa 
Lake to West Thumb. The road from ITorris to Canyon was opened April 
21, while the West Yellowstone road was cleared of snow by the twenty- 
seventh of April. The south entrance road was "opened on May 13, but 
motorists were not permittee 1 over this section until May 24. Follow- 
ing the opening of the south entrance road the plows opened the road 
to the east entrance reaching there the night of the nineteenth of 
May, travel being permitted over it the following day. The Dunraven 
pass road was opened on May 22, and the Continental Divide road on 
May 24. The Bureau of Public Hoads crew cleared the Red Lodge-Cooke 
road by the end of May, but a heavy snow storm during the last couole 
of days of that month blocked it ' again and it was not opened to per- 
mit travel over it until June 20, on which date the first hus load 
of rail visitors negotiated the highway. 

The unprecedented travel of the 1956 season was likewise recorded 
in the business of the operators and accommodations in the housekeep- 
ing cabins and lodges were at a premium throughout most of the summer. 
The hotels at Old Faithful and Canyon, the only ones completely opera- 
ting, were particularly well patronized due to the slight difference 
in price for the 3-?-,- day bus tour, permitting the lodges to be avail- 
able for a larger number of motorists. The girl's dormitory r.t Lake 
hotel was opened from the middle of July to the twenty-fifth of August, 
providing 48 additional rooms to take care of the overflow at Lake. 
One wing of the Mammoth hotel was kept open to accommodate overnight 
visitors but no meals were served. The Lake hotel was not operating. 
Because of the extremely heavy travel the Yellowstone Perk Company 
built a number of new cabins in the housekeeping cabin units and made 
arrangements to open Lake hotel and improve the Mammoth hotel and 

lodge group for the 1937 season to better handle the accommodations 
at those points of interest. Work on the new Mammoth project started 
on August 1 and continued throughout the winter. The Mammoth hotel 
closed operations for the 1936 season on September 7, while the hotels 
at Old Faithful and Canyon closed on September IS and 14 respective- 
ly. Camp Roosevelt was the first of the lodges to close down for 
the sesson, its operations ceasing September 8, while the Old Faith- 
ful and Canyon lodges closed September 10. Lake lodge closed on the 
same date, and the Mammoth lodge on the fourteenth, All of the house- 
keeping cabins and cafeterias were closed by September 21, after 
which date meals and lodgings were obtainable at the C. A. Hamilton 
Stores at Lake until October 23, and at Old Faithful until November 21 

As soon as visitors were admitted on May 1 for the 1937 season, 
Mr. C. A. Hamilton provided meals and lodgings at the Old Faithful 
and Lake stores, and on May 9 opened his Old Faithful swimming pool. 
On May 27 the housekeeping cabins and cafeterias opened to be in 
readiness for the Decoration Day crowd. On June 19 the lodges at 
Mammoth, Old Faithful, Lake, Canyon, and Camp Roosevelt were opened, 
while the new Terrace Grill, in connection with the Mammoth hotel 
and lodge group, was ready to serve meals to visitors. The hotels 
at Old Faithful,' Lake, and Canyon were open to accommodate visitors 
on June 20, while on the some date the new dining room at Mammoth 
and the lobby of the new hotel were first made available to the pub- 
lic. The Lake hotel 'was reopened after having been closed for a 
period of five years. The cabins contemplated in connection with the 
new Mammoth layout were not completed in time for the opening of the 
1937 season so that lodge accommodations at Mammoth were .available . - ; > 
at the old Mammoth lodge. Work will continue on the' cabins in the 
rear of the old Mammoth hotel and for the 1938 season there will be 
available cabin and hotel accommodations in the rev/ Mammoth group. 
The new Yellowstone Park Company is charging over from vrood to coal 
for fuel, to oil in some of its operations, and the first fuel oil 
was delivered to Canyon on September 22, 

The National Parks Airways started the regular airplane flights 
into West Yellowstone for the 1937 season on June 10, Appropriate 
ceremonies marking the third anniversary of the airplane service to 
the park were held at West Yellowstone on June 19, which ceremonies 
were participated in by Governor Leslie A. Miller of Wyoming, re- 
presentatives of the Governors of Idaho, Montana, and Utah, and a 
number of other prominent persons. The regularly scheduled flights 
over Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks started on the last 
day of June. 

With the increased popularity of the Red Lodge-Cooke road to 
the northeast entrance the Northern Pacific Railway inaugurated rail 

service to Red Lodge to serve this new gateway, the first bus load' 
of rail passengers coming over this 11,000 foot highway on June 20. 
An improvement in the rail service to Cody, serving the eastern portal 
of the park, was occasion for a celebration in Cody on June 23, 
sponsored by the citizens of the community and the Burlington Railroad. 
The ceremony marked the arrival of the new Burlington train "Buffalo 
Bill 1 ' which lessens considerably the time for the run between Denver 
and Cody. 

During the early part of the 1036 season fishing was excellent 
in most of the waters of the park, but due to unusually high tempera- 
tures which prevailed during late June and early July the waters be- 
came so warm that anglers were not as successful as they had been in 
past years and consequently comparatively few catches were reported. 
The total of the season's catches as reported by exit travel at park 
gateways amounted to 120,984 as compared with 149,609 fish reported 
the previous season. The fishing season closed on October 20, the 
same date as in 1935. The Yellowstone river from Gardiner to Tower 
Falls, and Shoshone, Heart, and Lewis lakes remained open to visitors 
throughout the winter. For the 1937 season the fishing opened on 
May 23, but because of the high muddy waters anglers were not reporting 
good catches until after the middle of June, and the record of catches 
reported showed a decrease over the same period in 1956. There were 
23,342 fish reported in 1937 as against 40,40? in the previous year. 
This decrease was also nartly due to 'the Yellowstone river from the ■ 
outlet of Yellowstone lake to Canyon, which included Fishing Bridge, 
being closed to fishing until July 1. 


_>s X 





^ ) 


\ — ... 

Very few complaints were received regarding the highways and 
every effort was made to place the roads in as good condition as 
possible for travel. Most of the grading work on the grand loop 
and feeder roads has now been completed with resulting:' little in- 
convenience to motorists. The completion of the oiling from Tower 
Falls to Mammoth now makes an excellent highway from the Canyon to 
Mammoth via Dunraven pass and Tower Falls and relieves much of the 
congestion over the narrow and dangerous Norris-Canyon cutoff. A 
contract for the grading of the remaining section from Isa lake to 
West Thumb on the Old Faithful-West Thumb road was let during the 
year and the contractor was able to get in more than a month's 
work in clearing the right of way before the snow blocked the high- 
way, Uhen this section is completed, "the last of the one-way roads 
in the park, with the exception of Mt. Washburn, will be gone and 
will result in a change in the routing of park visitors. 

, Despite the extremely dry and hazardous fire season anc 1 as 
was the case during the 1905 season when 55 fires were recorded, 
only 59 fires were reported for the 1956 season, 49 of which were 
held to class A in size, 9 to class B and one was reported as a 
false alarm. The total area burned amounted to but ill acres. 
Six of the members of the Yellowstone organization were loaned 
to Glacier Park on September 1 to assist in suppressing a large 
fire which occurred in that park. 

The several road projects as well as the construction of the 
Utility and Post Office buildings at Mammoth and the Park Service 
maintenance work afforded considerable employment throughout the 
summer. The unusually fine weather- permitted the work to -proceed 
late into the fall and more than 100 men were used throughout 
November by the contractor on the. Isa Lake-West Thumb project. 
The new development at Mammoth provided employment for an average 
of more than 100 men from early August throughout the winter and 
into the 193? summer. The road onenina - operations begun on the f: 
of April were responsible for the reemployment of a number of men 
from civil service rolls anc? as the season advanced it was dif- 
ficult to secure some skilled "men, especially ^lumbers and road 
maintenance foremen from available registers. The National Reem- 
ployment Service office at Mammoth took care of the needs of the 
contractors in a very satisfactory manner. With the reopening ef 
the National Reemployment Service at Mammoth on April 28 Louis 
LeVitre was placed in charge. This office acts as a placement 
bureau and not an employment office, as the men selected for work 
being based on 40$ for Montana, 40$ Wyoming, and 20$ Idaho, Its 
operation in the park has been very helpful to the National Park 


As inpast years several serious accidents marred the year's 
activities, three occurring during the month of July, the first 
shortly after the 'beginning of the fiscal year. On July 7, J, W, 
McFerson of Ogden, Utah died of burns received from falling into a 
hot pool along the lake shore at V'est Thumb, But 4 days later Robert 
R. Walker, 8 years old, of Billings, Montana, met his death from a 
falling tree in the Fishing Bridge campground during a severe wind- 
storm which was also responsible for slight injuries to four women 
and damages to 20 housekeeping cabins, 14 autos, and one 'trailer. 
Near the end of July, on the 26th, Howard Wooder,'17, of Gardiner, 
Montana was killed while attempting to stop a -coal truck on which 
he had been working at the Canyon hotel and which got out of con- 
trol. The month of August was free of serious accidents, but during 
September an unusual accident occurred which resulted in the death 
of L. A. Thrower, 59, of Livingston, Montana, an employee of the 
McGuire Construction Company, the contractor on the Mammoth-Tower 
Falls project. He fell from a truck and was run over, dying before 
reaching the hospital. On October 11 an accident occurred which re- 
sulted in the death of two Bureau of Public Roacb employeos returning 
to their camp in the early morning hours. Charles A. Stewart, 21, 
of Livingston, Montana and Thomas A. Cavanaugh, 30, of Denver, Colorado 
ran their car off the road at the bridge of the Gibbon river at Norris 
plunging down an embankment and into the river killing both men. 
Similar unfortunate accidents have occurred near the end of the past 
several seasons and in practically every case- employees of the park 
have been involved. Another accident occurred during the month of ' 
November resulting in the death of Miles Elliott, 44, of Harlowtown, 
Montana, an employee of the McLaughlin Construction Company. Mr. 
Elliott had entered the park at the northeast entrance and was driving 
to Gardiner on November 1. Riding alone and apparently having fallen 
asleep, the car in which he was driving ran off the road and pinned 
him underneath, killing him. instantly. 

The year recorded the passing of a number of employees and park 
friends. Members of the' organization were greatly grieved to learn 
of the death on August 2, 1935 of Br. Frank R. Oastler, surgeon from 
New York City and prominent photographer of park wildlife and features. 
Dr. Oastler died in Many Glaciers Hotel in Glacier National Park of a 
heart attack at the age of 65. He had spent many summers in the 
Yellowstone photographing wildlife and natural phenomena and he left 
an extensive collection of national park pictures both in stills and 

On October 27 there occurred the untimely passing of Assistant 
Park Naturalist George C. Crowe, Mr, Crowe took sick on October 21 
and died on the twenty-seventh at the age of 47, his death being at- 
tributed to cancer, Mr. Crowe was employed in the Yellowstone since 


1932 as Assistant Park Naturalist, having transferred from the cus- 
todianship of Devils Tower National Monument, He served in the 
Naturalist, Department at Yosemite National .pari; prior to going to 
Devils Tower. Mr. Crowe was a. conscientious, efficient, and pains- 
taking employee and made many friends among par}; visitors and in 
neighboring communities where he often made talks dealing with the 
park. He was always interested in the welfare of the visitor and 
spent most of his evenings during the summer trying to be of service 
to all with whom he, came in contact. He was extremely active in the 
educational features of the C. C. C. camps, and took a vital interest 
in the enrollees. Mr. Crowe was a good entertainer and was respon- 
sible for most of the programs held in the automobile campgrounds 
in connection with the evening lectures. Funeral services were held 
in the Methodist Church in Livingston on October 31, Reverend Bert 
Powell of the Livingston Methodist Church officiating. A number of 
park men in uniform and a host of park friends attended the funeral. 
J. U. Emmert, F. D. LaNoue, Lee Coleman, Frank Oberhonsley, Frank 
Anderson, and David Condon, all in Bark Service uniforms, acted as 
pall bearers. The remains were shipped to Oakland, California for 
burial. Authority was received to fly the flag at half-mast from 
October 28 to 31. 

The month of January saw the passing of thrc^ close park' friends, 
Robert D. Carey, U. S. Senator and former Governor of Wyoming, Alclen 
Eaton, pioneer Wyoming dude rancher, and Mrs. Leroy Hill, wife of a 
former Assistcnt Superintendent of the Pari;. Senator Carey died of 
a boart .ailment in Cheyenne, Wyoming on January 17. He v;rs always 
keenly interested in the Yellovstonc and its activities and partici- 
pated in numerous legislation affecting the park during his adminis- 
tration as both Governor and U. S; Senator. Alden Eaton was one of 
the famous Eaton Brothers of Wolf, Wyoming from whose ranch the first 
dude parti es'vcre sent into the Ye 13. ow stone. He died at his, ranch 
home at Wolf, Wyoming at the ape of 77. His brother Howard ,' the 
first true dude rancher, died in 1922 while a second brother, ^illis, 
passed away seven years later. Mrs. Leroy Hill came to the park in 
1903 when her husband was transferred from St. Louis as a clerk. 
The Hills remained in the park until 1931 when Mr. Hill retired be- 
cause of disability, occupying the position of Disbursing Clerk during 
the last few years of his employment. Mrs. Hill tool:' sick just prior 
to Christmas when she visited in the park with her . daughter, Mrs. 
Grace Robinson, wife of the park master mechanic. She was taken to 
the Park Hospital in Livingston whore she died on the twenty-sixth 
at the age of 67. Funeral services and burial we're in Livingston. 

Frank B. Anderson, the contrrctor on the new apartment house 
building died at his hone in Denver during February after an illness 
of several months, while Mrs. Arthur L. Rule died early in that month 

at her home in Mason City, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Rule are long-time 
park friends and each summer for ten or twelve years the couple have 
spent from one to two months in the Yellowstone. Dr. William T. 
Hornaday, one of the leading zoologists end conservationists of the 
country and for 30 years Director of the New York Zoological Gardens, 
died at his home in Stamford, Connecticut on March 6 at the age of 
82 following an illness of several months. Dr. Eornaday had been 
interested in many of the problems in the Yellowstone and early in 
the twentieth century aided in promoting legislation which resulted 
in the establishment of the park's present buffalo herd. He was 
president of the American Bison Society from 1907 to 1910 and was 
the author of numerous publications on wildlife, Ben Lamb, an em- 
ployee of the Yellowstone Park Company commissary at Mammoth for a 
number of years, died in Los Angeles on March 13. Burial was in 
Big Timber, Montana on March 18. Stanley Todd employee as a clerk 
in the Post Office at Mammoth several years ago, was killed in an. 
unusual accident at Great Palls, Montana on March 30. Mr. Todd was 
struck by a large piece of pipe thrown several thousand feet by an 
explosion. Burial was at Big Timber, Montana on April £, 

The Hayden-Cartwright Act which became effective June 1G, 1936 
was ruled by the attorney general as applicable to the Yellov/stone 
and permits the collection of a state tax on all gasoline used or 
sold in the park except for the exclusive use of the government. 
This act involves the payment of a considerable sum by the operators 
concerned to the states affected and requires the payment by visitors 
of a gasoline tax to states for roads built and maintained entirely 
by the government. 

The annual meeting of the Yellowstone Library and Museum Associa- 
tion was held in the library of the museum on October 23, Assistant 
to the Superintendent Joffe presiding. Superintendent Rogers was 
elected as a director to succeed former Superintendent Toll. The 
general business of the year and plans for the future wore discussed. 

A fire which completely destroyed the Gardiner checking station 
inside the north entrance arch, except the stone wall, occurred in the 
early morning: hours of March 4, The station was occupier by C. C. C. 
enrollees who rendered excellent service in salvaging all possible 
from the burning building. In June an appropriation of 1-940 was made 
available for the reconstruction of the building, ITork got under- 
way immediately and the station should be in use again toward the end 
of July. A temporary structure was' placed several hundred feet east 
of the old station to handle the traffic until such time as the re- 
construction is complete. 

Work on the new Utility building was considerably prolonged due 
to the unsatisfactory operations of the contractor, Siegfus Brothers 


of Salt Lake .City, .Utah. While the project was to have been com- 
pleted on December 1, 1936, on Febrary 23 it was necessary to ter- 
minate the contractor's right to proceed due to unsatisfactory pro- 
gress and on March 15 word was received from the surety, the Maryland 
Casualty Company of Baltimore, Maryland, that it waived its right 
to complete the project. Immediate steps were taken to complete 
the project by force account and on May 26 the job was finally 
accepted. Upon acceptance arrangement s were made to move the old 
garage' equipment and get the new Utility building in operation to 
provide a more efficient and workmanlike shop for the mechanical 
department. The same condition as occurred in connection with the 
Utility building also happened in connection with the new Post 
Office buildina , and because of the delay it was not possible to 
have the building in readiness for the 1937 season. The surety on 
that building let a contract for the completion of the buildinr to 
Coomer and Small, contractors from Sioux City, Iowa, the new con- 
tractor starting work on April 21. 

Resident physician Ivan T. Budaeff suffered from an eye injury 
most of the time he was in the park during the 1936 season, and it 
xvas necessary for him to seek special treatment in Portland, Oregon. 
He returned to the park on Octooer 5 and departed the following day 
for San Prancisco where he expected to engage in the practice of 
medicine. He was succeeded in the jjark by Dr. Paul Gailmard who 
occupied the resident physician job several years ago. 

Considerable excitement prevailed in" the park on March 16 v/hen 
it was learned that Oliver l ; ;inlare, winterkeeper at Lake lodge, was 
stricken with a sudden illness. Unable to diagnose the over 
the telephone and because the man's condition was critical, arrange- 
ments were made to move him out to the hospital in Livingston. This 
was possible only through the efforts of Park Ranger Frank Anderson 
and the winterkeepers at Lake hotel and Canyon hotel and lodge. The 
men dragged V/inlare on an improvised sled from the Lake to Canyon 
through a severe blizzard and then toward H rris until they met the 
snow plows which had onened the road from Mammoth to the foot of 
Blanding hill on the Canyon-Norris road. Placed in the ambulance, 
Winlare was rushed to Livinr- ston and his case was' diagnosed as a 
ruptured appendix. Following immediate operation, the patient re- 
covered slowly and was able to return to work within a couple of 
months. Much credit is due r anger Frank Anderson, the winterkeepers] 
and the members of the snow crew who worked faithfully and untiring- 
ly in their efforts to' bring the sick man out to civilization and 
thereby saved his life. The men transported the sled a distance 
of 21 miles, while the snow plow opened 25 miles of road. 


The last of a series of six broadcasts featuring the national 
parks was held on Sunday, May'50,, This scries was sponsored "by the 
National Broadcasting Company, the planes therefor being furnished 
by the United Airliner, Flights were made over the various national 
parks featured on six consecutive Sundays, and the Yellowstone broad- 
cast also included Grand Teton National Park* Superintendent Rogers, 
Assistant to the Superintendent Joffe, Acting Chief Ranger LaNoue, 
and Park Naturalist Bauer represented the Yellowstone on the flight 
and the broadcast, while Superintendent Vlhitcraft of Grand Teton 
National Park covered the Grand Teton material, Don Thompson, an- 
nouncer for the National Broadcasting Company, San Francisco, did 
the announcing, .while a musical number "Home on the Range' 1 was ren- 
dered by Virginia Paul, stewardess for the United Airlines operating 
between Chicago and Cheyenne. Park Naturalist Bauer played the har- 
monica accompaniment for Miss Paul, The plane flew at an elevation 
of approximately IS, GOO feet throughout the ' broadcast and much credit 
for the success was due to the National Parks Airways pilot, A. \". 
Stevenson, who handled t3 e flight with his co-pilot, Mr. Lund. The 
broadcast proved most satisfactory and many favorable comments were 
received regarding it. 

The Universal Pictures Corporation, which company filmed a 
feature picture entitled "Yellowstone" in the park in late June and 
early July, released the picture on July 19 for general showing 
throughout the country.. The superintendent and other members of the 
park organization had their first opportunity in November to witness 
it, and all were, greatly disappointed in the manner in which the 
picture had been handled. There were some excellent shots of park 
scenes, but the story and characters were far below expectations* 
None of the principal characters in the picture appeared in the park 
at any tine during its filming, practically all of the shots having 
been taken in the studio in California. 

The Mammoth school opened its fall semester on September 8 with 
Miss H. Ivlr.y White actina as teacher. The school had. the largest 
attendance of record and. assistance was rendered the teacher by a 
C. C. C. enrollee in conducting classes and organizing the play for 
the school children, The school opened with 19 pupils but the attend- 
ance later reached 21, The school was closed for the summer on May 27. 
A recreational director was employed by the members of the community 
for looking after the children" on the playgrounds and in the swimming 
pool durina the summer of 1937. 



Personnel. The permanent personnel consists of Edraund B. 
Rogers, Superintendent; John W. Fmmert, Assistant Superintendent; 
Joseph Joffe, Assistant to the Superintendent; Keith P. Neilson, 
Chief Clerk; Fred G. Bussey, Agent Cashier; Boyd N. Larsen, senior 
clerk; Vernal!. Roe, clerk-stenographer; Virginia J. Goettlich, 
clerk (files and personnel) ; Richard J. Smith, clerk (timekeeper) ; 
Jerry P. Tonini , clerk (warehouse); Morey L Sher, voucher clerk; 
Catharine L. Harris, clerk (Naturalist department); Loustalet J. 
Q,uinn, clerk (Chief Ranger's office); /dice L. Karris, clerk. 
This force is augumented during the summer with one clerk, cue 
stenographer, one assistant clerk, one clerk stenographer for 
publicity, and two assistant statististical clerks. 

A number of changes were made in the administrative i,ersonr-el 
during the fiscal year. Chief Clerk B. A. Hundley depa:- ted on 
. August 3 for Omaha to assume the duties of Chief Clerk of Region II, 
EiC.W. His services in the Yellowstone were terminated or August 
5." Following bis denarture senior clerk Keith N e iis n took over 
Mr. Hundley's duties as acting Chief Clerk and on August 31 his' 
appointment as such was received effective September 1. Boyd N. 
Larsen received an appointment as senior clerk vice Mr. Neilson 
effective September 1. A number of promotions were received in 
August, many of the recipients having had no increases for more than 
five years. Clerk Alice Harris reportec 1 for duty November 3 to fill 
the vacancy created by the promotion of Mr. Larsen. In January 
notice was received of the transfer of clerk Albert R. Novak to the 
Boulder Dam Recreational area effective January 1. The permanent 
transfer of disbursing clerk F. W. \' T atson was approved at the end 
of January and the position of Agent Cashier was created to take 
over the disbursing officer's duties. Fred G. Bussey v;as appointed 
to take over this position effective February 9. Moroy L. Sher, 
transferred from a clerical position with the Bureau of Public 
Roads in Denver, entered on duty on May 24 vice Albert R. Novak. 

A serious condition involving the morale of a number of emp3.oyees 
was remedied in the park on October G when there was received a cory 
of order #1122 dated October 1, 1936 adjusting the regulations re- 
garding the hours of labor for employees. Through this order we wore 
able to replace on the 44-hour week all employees in the crafts and 
mechanical positions xvhich permitted carpenters, plumbers, mechanics, 
painters, and so forth, to receive Saturday afternoons off the same 
as clerical employees which was the case prior to the enforcement 
of new regulations covering hours of labor which became effective 
early in the summer of 1936, 


Ap p ropriations . Appropriations for the fiscal year 1937 were 
as follows: 

1471000.331 Miscellaneous Expenses 0373, 250.00 

1471000.332 Purchase, maintenance, operation, 

and repair of passenger-carrying vehicles 5,000.00 

1471000.333 Roads, national forests 11,400.00 

Total 1471000 Yellowstone National Park 0389,650.00 

1471000.061 Emergency Reconstruction and 

Fighting Forest Fires in National Parks, 1957 - - - - 940.00 

146/71000 Forest Protection and Fire 

Prevention, 1936-37- 3,306*34 

ECF CC 5518 P-99 A-1000-7 57,969.00 

EOF ECU 5518 P-99 A- 1001-7 22,75 0.00 

Total Emergency Conservation Fund -------- 80,699.00 

Re venues^ fpi\ 1_9J57, - Revenues aggregating : ,'; ; 412,983.27 were received 
from the following sources during the fiscal year and deposited in 
the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts, 

M. R. 140350 Rent of Telephone Facilities C ?40.00 

M. R. 140520 Permits to Enter National Parks - 331,635;00 

M. R. 140590 Business Concessions - -__-__ 75,987.82 

M. R. 144260 Refund on Empty Containers - - _____ 64.25 

M. R. 144330 Reimbursement, Lost Government Property - - 35.64 

M. R. 145050 Sale of Electric Current " 4,273.08 

M. R. 145070 Sale of Furs 20.00 

M. R. 145109 Sale of Water 545.88 

M. R. 145130 Sale of Equipment 127.30 

M, R. 145160 Sale of Scrap and Salvage Material - 54.50 

, Total Revenues 0412,983.27 

From the above figures it is noted that the revenues which the 
park turned back to the Treasury Department for the 1937 fiscal year 
exceeded our main appropriation for that period by $>23,353.27, This 
is the first time in the history of the Park that the revenues have 
exceeded the main park appropriation. Revenues accruing to the 
Government in Yellowstone National Park have always shown a marked 
relationship to the total tourist travel. It is anticipated that the 
tourist travel for the next year will exceed that of this year by a 
substantial margin. It is expected that the revenues will show a 
corresponding increase for the next fiscal year. 


A Hi 



There are four permanent members of. the Staff in Yellowstone 
National Park. During the yeer former Assistant Pari: Naturalist 
George C, Crowe passed away on October 27 and on December 1, 1936 
Y T illiam E. Kearns was advanced from Junior Park Naturalist to As- 
sistant Park Naturalist and Frank R. Oberhansley was promo.ted from 
a park ranger to Junior Park Naturalist. At the close of the year 
'the permanent staff consisted of':- 

Park Naturalist 
Assistant Park Naturalist 
Junior Park Naturalist 

C, Max Bauer 
William E. Kearns , 
Frank R. Oberhansley 
Catharine L. Harris 

The summer staff in July and August of 1936 consisted of 
nineteen ranger naturalists and three museum caretakers. During 
June of 1937 only eighteen ranger naturalists were on the rolls 
as the full force of nineteen could not be had because of lack 
of funds. Only two caretakers for the museums were hired during 
June and they were hired rather late because of lack of funds. The 
nineteenth position as ranger naturalist was filled on July 1 and 
authority has been granted from the Director to add another ranger 
naturalist during the season of 1937. 

A large number of people attending the par}: has increased 
the daily contacts per man from 500 to 972 during the last four 


years. Many of the parties conducted by the ranger naturalists are 
so large that they are' unwieldy and unsatisfactory results are bound 
to exist in some cases; Owing to the improved roads and improved snow 
clearance of the roads, the seasons in Yellowstone are longer than 
formerly. Although the 'hotels and lodges have an official season of 
June 20 to September 12, the travel becomes exceedingly heavy by the 
middle of May and continues until October 1. It would, therefore, be 
advisable to extend the temporary employment of ranger naturalists 
from 90 days to 105 days and in addition justification has been made 
for the addition of seven ranger naturalists during the height of the 

The closing dates for the museums in 1936 were as follows: 

Madison Museum September 2 

Norris Museum September 8 

Fishing Bridge Museum September 13 

Mammoth Museum September 13 

Old Faithful Museum September 13 

The opening dates for the museums in June of 1937 were as fol- 
lows : 

Mammoth Museum June 6 

Old Faithful Museum June 6 

Fishing Bridge Museum June 16 

Madison Museum June 16 

Norris Museum June 16 

The daily hours for each museum are as follows: 

Mammoth Museum 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. 

Norris Museum 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 

Madison Museum 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 

Old Faithful Museum 8:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. 

Fishing B r idge Museum 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. 

Each museum has an information desk to which men are assigned 
during the open hours and nerform a great deal of service in this 

Five outdoor amphitheaters were in use during the year: one at 
Mammoth Campground which will seat 240; one at Madison Junction Museum 
which will seat 80; one at Old Faithful Museum which will seat 800; 
one at West Thumb which will seat 175; and one at Fishing Bridge 
Museum which will seat 900. These outdoor anion i theaters are used each 


■.evening during the season for campf ire talks on history and natural 
history of Yellowstone. Owing to the revision of the general plan 
for Canyon area, no amphitheater has been built at that point. The 
campf ire lecture there is still held in the community room of the 
ranger station although this room will only seat 150 people and many 
are turned away each night. 

The bear feeding takes place at only one point in Yellowstone 
Park and that is at the Otter Creek pit about one and one-half miles 
southwest of Canyon Junction. It has been necessary this year to 
give two lectures each evening at the bear feeding so as to accommo- 
date a larger group of people. The parking area is not sufficient 
to take care of the numbers which come to this program. The natural 
history of black and grizzly bears is given at these two lectures. 

Other activities of the Naturalist Department during the travel 
season consist of nature walks at each one of the main points on 
the Grand Loop road. These begin at 8:15 each morning and last for 
about two hours, A walk is given in the Old Faithful area over 
Geyser Hi,ll at 9:15. Auto caravans are conducted to points of 
interest at Mammoth at 9:00 a.m. and at Old Faithful end Fishing 
Bridge at 2:00 p.m. Game stalks are conducted each evening at 
Canyon and at Mammoth at 7:30 p.m. Special contacts consist of 
placing ranger naturalists on duty at Artist Point and Grand View 
Point at the Grand Canyon. Busses are met by ranger naturalists at 
Norris, Madison Junction, and West Thumb end guided trips are made 
and talks are given to the visitors. Other special contacts consist 
of a talk on Old Faithful Geyser cone just before each eruption. 
These talks have been reduced to five or six minutes. 

During the last winter season a great deal of work was done 
organizing the storerooms, filing systems, and work shops in the 
museum at Mammoth... Some trips were made to observe winter conditions 
and make observations of wildlife. 

The office work consisted of filing negatives and photographic 
prints, classif ication of specimens, continuation of the classifi- 
cation and cataloring of library books, accessioning of materials 
for the museums, revising lantern slide files and completing the re- 
cataloging of these slides, filing of newspaper clinpinrs, and 
printinr of labels. 

Nature Notes were issued every two months th?.' , oughout the year 
making six numbers in all. 

One case on geological exploration was installed in the 
Mammoth Museum and numerous labels were replaced in some of the 

exhibit cases. 

The study of Place "Names of Yellowstone National Park continued 
intermittently through the year and on October 20, 1936 a list Was 
submitted to the Washington Office and the Pirector who in turn sub- 
mitted the list to the United States Board on Geographical Names on 
January 27, 1937. A large part of the list has now been approved by 
the Board and the Yellowstone Library and Museum Association has approv- 
ed the publication of this book and will finance its publication, 

Pre-season activities of the ranger naturalists and temporary 
rangers were carried on this year in a three-day training course on 
information and rules and regulations in Yellowstone Pari: accompanied 
by a trip around the Grand Loop road. These activities are carried on 
by the Naturalist Staff and one Assistant Chief Ranger, 

No funds were available for contacting schools, civic clubs, and 
other organizations in the adjoining states during the past year; 
hence, only a very small amount of this work was undertaken. However, 
on June 28 and 29 Park Naturalist Bauer delivered lectures to the 
Conference on Visual and Radio Education called by the Bureau of Edu- 
cation at Wyoming University. "Educational Methods Used in the 
National Parks" was discussed in the first talk and "Yellowstone 
Through the Ages" was the subject of the second talk. 

Further development of the film library in *.vhich both kodachrome 
and black and white films were 'used in recording wildlife and birds, 
the color of hot springs, > etc. , was carried on. A dark room was 
constructed in the basement of the Mammoth Museum and most of the 
developing and printing for the National Park Service and E.G. 17. 
employees is now being done there at a considerable saving. 

Some research work was carried en by the permanent naturalists 
on geology and wildlife and during the winter Neil A, Miner prepared 
a thesis on "The Pleistocene Glaciation of the Gardiner, Mammoth Hot 
Springs, and Lava Creek Regions of Yellowstone National Park," ^r. 
Miner is a ranger naturalist in the summer and submitted this thesis 
for his doctorate at the University of Iowa. The Park Naturalist with 
the heir of two student technicians accomplished some research during 
the year. Ernest Tisdale in the summer of 1936 prepared cross-sections 
and structural studies of the Gallatin and Beartooth ranges, and Page 
T. Jenkins working for only about three weeks in June, 1937 began a 
study of the gravel deposits with a view to finding areas where gravel 
for structural work and concrete might be obtained in the park conven- 
ient to the Grand Loop road without doing too much harm to the land- 

In the fall of 1936 the Park Naturalist prepared a manuscript 


on "The Story of Yellowstone Geysers" which Haynesj Inc. published. 
The book was very well illustrated by Mr. Jack E. Haynes and is be- 
lieved to present the story of Yellowstone geysers in a way which wil] 
be easily understood. This book was received from the printers early 
in June, 1937 and is now on sale in the park. Since the work was 
done largely on Government time no royalty is received by the author. 

The Yellowstone library and Museum Association, which now has 
a semi-official status due to the passing of an act by Congress during 
the year, lias carried on very actively during the past year. The 
Association has purchased a large number of books for the library 
and much equipment for the naturalist work. In the equipment is a 
Leica camera with both fast and telephoto lenses which should be 
especially useful in obtaining wildlife pictures and if successful 
these can' be made into lantern slides which will be valuable to 
the educational program. 

One student enrollee, Ernest Tisdale, 'worked during July and 
August of 1956 on geological investigation, and one student tech- 
nician, geologist, Page T. Jenkins, worked from June 17 to June 30, 
1937, Another student technician by the name of Arthur Single as- 
sisted Dp. Adolph Murie in wildlife' investigations during the 
latter part of June although he was assigned to the Naturalist 

During the year from two to throe C.C.C. cnrollees were used 
on museum work of one sort or another. One of those boys has 
developed an interest in photography and owing to his ability along 
this line has been assigned to the work in the dark room ds well as 
securing certain photographs for the E.CVJ. and Park Service acti- 

A' table showing the Naturalist Department activities from 
July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1937 follows: 

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General, The regular activities of the Protection Department 
which have been carried on throughout the past year have consisted 
of public contact work, issuing of permits and regulating traffic 
at entrance stations, lav; enforcement, wildlife protection, fish 
planting, forest fire protection and suppression, protection patrols, 
and other general duties. 

Aside from the regular work of this department, its personnel 
has been called upon to assist 'with the supervision and planning 
of various emergency activities. 

During the past winter a great deal of time was devoted to 
the reduction of the Northern Yellowstone elk herd. This required 
the almost constant time of five rangers during the months of 
November to February, inclusive. More than fifty per cent of the 
time of nine other members of the protection organization was devoted 
to the same project over the same -period. A considerable amount 
of time was devoted to studies of range and biotic conditions 
affecting the game animals on the winter range. Monthly counts 
of game animals were made on all grazing units and observations 
on the condition of the range and conditions of the animals 


grazing thereon were made in connection with the monthly counts. Fish 
propagation has been given some study with a view toward improving 
fishing conditions in all waters of the par];. 

The establishment, and maintenance of the forest nursery has re- 
quired the technical advice and supervision of members of bhe Protec- 
tion Department personnel. The nursery is now fairly well established 
but has not yet been in operation long enough for any extensive produc- 
tion. Forest insect control projects have been carried out where there 
was immediate danger of infestations in the vicinity of development 
areas and auto campgrounds. Improvements have been made in forest 
fire control and detection organisation. Fuel type maps have been pre- 
pared for the use of the fire dispatcher, together with an hour con- 
trol map which shows the probable travel time from each ranger station 
to points where fires may be reported. Additional visibility studj . 
have been made from each lookout station. Improved fire fighting tools 
have been added to fire tool caches and improvements have been mane in 
assembling, packing, and dispatching food supplies and other equipment 
with a view toward concentration in the smallest possible packages in 
order to increase portability. 

One member of the permanent protection staff has Veen assignee 1 
to the supervision of "EC 1 " activities in the nark, and his entire time- 
has been devoted to this work. All members of the protection organiza- 
tion have been called upon to assist with the supervision of various 
E0 TT projects in s'cvoral districts in the park. A great deal of time 
has been devoted to such projects as trail maintenance, construction, 
and reconstruction, the construction of lookout towers, maintenance 
and construction of motorways, cleanup of auto campgrounds, forest 
insect control, and other similar work that has been accomplished 
under the EOT I pro;; ram. 

The extremely heavy travel during the past year has placed an un- 
usual burden of activities on this department. Vlith its limited person- 
nel it has been impossible to properly handle the largo volume of 
motorists at the five entrance stations and at the other concentra- 
tion points throughout the pari:. Traffic problems have become in- 
creasingly acute. The increase in auto travel has brought about an 
increase in the use. of auto campgrounds, not only in the developed 
auto camps but in roadside camps throughout the entire park. Traffic 
problems are especially complex at Canyon and Old Faithful, and 
during rush hours at the entrance stations. These problems have 
been handle o as well as possible with the limited personnel that is 
available to assign 'to such locations. The rules and regulations 
have been enforced more stringently and completely during the pa st 
year than for several previous years but there arc; still many reported 
violations that cannot be investigated because of lack of personnel. 


During the past year there has been purchased and put into opera- 
tion four ranger patrol cars which have been extremely beneficial 
in controlling camping in roadside areas which are outside of des- 
ignated campgrounds and in controlling travel of motor vehicles 
off of established highways. Patrolmen have accomplished a great 
deal toward enforcing speed and other traffic regulations and as 
a result there has been a decided decrease in- serious auto acci- 
dents and in drunken and reckless driving. 

The 1936 season, from July 1 through September was extremely 
dry and a serious fire hazard existed. Fortunately it was possible 
to control all fires which occurred in the park to class A or B 
in size, While all of the fires which occurred during this per- 
iod were comparatively small, it required a great deal of the 
time of the protection personnel to locate and suppress them. 

Personnel. The Protection Department personnel consists of ' 
Acting Chief Ranger Francis D. LaNoue; one Assistant Chief Ranger, 
George W, Miller; 'four Acting Assistant Chief 'Rangers, Maynsrd 
Barrows, Albert E. Elliott, Curtis. K. Skinner, and George A. 
Walker; twenty- two permanent park rangers; thirty-nine temporary 
rangers; one chief buffalo keeper; one assistant buffalo keeper; 
one buffalo herder; and one night watchman who is assigned to 
Mammoth. Assistant Chief Ranger George W. Miller has been assign- 
ed to the supervision of ECW activities during the entire year 
and his services have not been available for regular protection 
work. Three permanent rangers left the ranger service in 
Yellowstone during' the past year, to accept other positions in 
Government service, Francis R. Oberhansley accepted a position 
in Yellowstone as Junior Park Naturalist, Guy E, McCarty accepted 
a position as Custodian of Craters of the Moon National Monument, 
and Raymond M, West resigned to accept a position with the TJ. S. 
Forest Service. 

Forestry . 

Insect Control . During the month of November an in- 
sect survey was conducted by park rangers in the Mammoth utility 
area, locating and marking all insect infested trees, A crow 
of CCC enrollecs, under the supervision of park rangers, removed 
the infested trees in December, In May an insect survey crew 
was organized and surveys of the utility areas at Old Faithful, 
Fishing Bridge, Lake and West Thumb wore made* The insect in- 
fested trees were removed by CCC enrollecs. The majority of the 
insect infested trees that were treated wore infested With 
secondary bark beetles. Some indications of a possible infesta- 
tion of defoliators have been observed in the vicinity of West 
Yellowstone and subsequent observations will be made to determine 


the probabilities of another outbreak in this region. Several 
study plots have been established to determine the seriousness and 
extent of destructiveness from winter damage to trees in certain sec- 
tions of the park. This damage occurred in the winter of 1955-36 but 
was not sufficiently developed for study until late in the 1936 season. 

Nursery. The forest nursery has been carried as an ECW project 
during the past year, under the direct supervision of the protection 
department. The work has progressed satisfactorily and with cuttings 
and seed beds planted, a crop of 1,500,000 trees is expected. With 
the exception of a small nortion, all of the shelter belts have been 

Fore st^ Fir e_ Pro tec t i o n . The season of 1936 was comparatively 
dry and a serious fire hazard existed until late in the fall. The 
fire hazard was reduced by heavy rains at intermittent intervals dur- 
ing the summer, but storm periods were always accompanied by lightning 
and with extremely dry intervening neriods which created a high light- 
ning fire hazard. There were 30 lightning-caused fires during the 
1936 season. A total of 57 fires occurred during the past year, two 
of which have occurred this season. The total area burned in 1936 
was 27 acres and all fires that have occurred this season have been 
held to such a small size that it is not possible to figure acreage 
on them. Of the 55 fires that occurred in the park after July 1, 1936, 
46 were less than 1/4 acre, 9 were more, than 1/4 acre and less than 
10 acres, and none was over 10 acres. The fire hazard this season has 
been low due to a late spring with slowly molting snows and heavy 
rains during the months of May and June. 

Building Fir e Pr o tacti on. All buildings in the park, including 
those owned by the park operators, have been thoroughly inspected for 
existing fire hazards and recommendations made for correcting hazard- 
ous structural conditions and hazardous practices. A number of new 
fire extinguishers have bc^n purchase- d and installed in Government 
buildings. Practically every Government building, that is occupied, 
is now equipped with first aid fire protection. In many of the 
buildings poor housekeeping conditions have boon corrected and 
storage sheds have boon cleaned up and all serious fire hazards re- 

Trai l Mainte n ance . The maintenance accomplished during the past 
year consisted of clearing 180 miles 'of principal trails of fallen 
timber, loose rocks, and slides; and, in addition, extensive repair, 
rcgrading and surfacing of short stretches of trail which had become 
unsafe for travel. 


Approximately 500 miles of additional trails were cleared of 
windfalls by rangers, fireguards, and CCC labor but limited funds 
and personnel did not permit extensive repairs. In the fall of 
1936 an old, badly rotted, and unsafe bridge, crossing the canyon 
of Hellroaring creek, was replaced with a new log and plank struc- 
ture. The bridge is a 40-foot span and is the only means of cross- 
ing Hellroaring creek above the ranger station and the only cross- 
ing during flood periods. Many small log bridges, and four larger 
ones of IS to 20 feet spans, collapsed on the Howard Eaton Trail ' 
between Mammoth and Gibbon Meadows, and between Norris and Canyon, 
during the winter months. These bridges had to be rebuilt during 
early June. 

A major maintenance project in repairing a portion of the 
Elk creek trail, between Tower Junction and the Yellowstone river was 
undertaken in June with a crew of 6 to 8 men. At the close of 
the fiscal year approximately a mile of this trail, including a 
steep and dangerous slide, was rebuilt and put in pood condition 
for all-year use. This trail is the principal all-year route to 
Hellroaring ranger station via the steel suspension bridge across 
the Yellowstone river at the mouth of Elk creek. When connected 
with the existing trail from Mammoth to Blacktail, it will form 
an important link in the Howard Eaton loon trail. 

Hay R anches. A total of 1,649 tons of hay were cut on the 
various hay ranches in the park last season as compered with 602 
tons harvested during the 1935 season. Of the hay harvested last 
season 588 tons were put up at the Buffalo ranch, 151 tons at 
Slough creek, and the remainder was cut at Gardiner, Yanceys, and 
on the nursery area at the game ranch. The hay cut on the game 
ranch was used partly for horse feed and partly in the elk re- 
duction operations. The hay cut at Gardiner was baled and hauled 
to the Yancey ranch at Tower Falls where it was used for winter 
feed for the Government horse herd and in the elk reduction op- 
erations. Approximately 400 head of buffalo wore fed on the 
Buffalo ranch during the winter season. A herd of about 800 elk 
were fed on the Slough creek feeding ground, part of which were 
taken in the elk reduction program. It has been decided to dis- 
continue feeding operations at Slough creek inasmuch as artificial 
feeding of elk has proven to be more detrimental than beneficial. 
Hay will not be cut on the Gardiner meadow this summer, it having 
been decided to permit this forage to mature and let the elk and 
other game animals secure it naturally. A total of 574 tons of 
hay were fed to elk, buffalo, and the Government horse herd last 

Wildlife in the Park . 

General . The first part of the winter of 1936-37 was 
comparatively mild insofar as snow conditions were concerned. Snow- 
fall was light and temperatures were considerably below normal so that 
the snow that fell did not pack or crust and game animals were able 
to secure forage by pawing down through the snow without undue dif- 
ficulty. As a consequence there was not the concentration of grime- 
animals on the northern winter range that normally occurs. Elk were 
found to be scattered in small herds over the entire park and a great 
many were observed in sections of the park where normal snow conditions 
would have proved prohibitive. Practically all game animals came 
throuah the winter in gooo condition and the deaths from starvation 
and winter-kill were well below normal. These conditions were true 
of all game animals although the deer, antelone, and mountain sheep 
suffered somewhat from coyote depredations. 

Heavy rains during the .months of May and June followed a late 
spring in which the melting of anew was delayed and there was little 
runoff of water. All sections of the winter range have -produced an 
excellent growth of forage this season and it is reasonable to expect 
that there' will bo more forage available this next winter than at any 
time during the r>est four or five years, excont in the event of ab- 
normally heavy snows. 

An te lope . An antelope census was made in March, 1957, 
and a total of 600 antelope wore actually counted as belonging to the 
Yellov.stcne herd. It is estimated that this herd numbers about 650 
animals. The majority of these animals were found to be wintering 
in the vicinity of Gardiner and the game ranch. Several reports wore 
received of coyote depredations in the antelope herd and a number of 
observations woro made indicating that coyotes had made kills. In all 
instances the kills had been made at night and by the time they were 
discovered there was not enough of the carcass left to determine 
whether coyotes had been the primary cause of death. During the 
summer months these animals are to be found at higher elevations from 
Gardiner to the junction of Cache creek with the Lamar river. Last 
summer a small herd was observed on Swan lake flats, which is not a 
usual occurrence. Antelope- may be seen almost daily in the hay field 
near the north entrance to the park and they are a constant source of 
enjoyment for park visitors and especially for amateur photographers. 

Beers (31ack)_. From figures obtained during a. buar census 
made in August, 1936, it is estimated that there are about 621 black 
bears nrcsent in the park. In spite of -public warnings prominently 


displayed in all sections of the park and incorporated in all 
literature pertaining to the park and radio and newspaper pub- 
licity regarding the savagery and the danger involved in feed- 
ing bears, park visitors still insist on feeding then where they 
are encountered at many points along the highway. There have 
been 43 bear injuries reported this year as compared with 42 
reported for the previous year. In practically all cases the 
injured persons have been feeding bears or have failed to take 
due precautions when in the vicinity of where bears are being 
fed or photographed. Only 28 bear damages were reported during 
the past year. The decrease in bear damages is attributed to 
the fact that the habitual frequenters of auto campgrounds and 
utility areas have been hauled out or killed. It has been ob- 
served that so far this season the majority of bears are to be 
seen along the highways rather than in the campground areas. 
On several occasions during the past year, reports have been 
received from ranchers and resort operators between the East en- 
trance and Oody, advising of an increase in the black bear pop- 
ulation in that locality. It is believed that these animals 
are overflow from the pork. 

Be ars (Grizzly ). The bear feeding ground at Canyon, .where 
park visitors can observe from twenty to seventy grizzly boars 
each evening on the feeding platform, has proven increasingly 
popular. On numerous occasions the large parking area at this 
point has proven entirely inadequate to t ctfommodate the 500 to 
600 automobiles in which visitors travel to see the bear show. 
With an increase in travel this season, the parking problem at 
this point has become increasingly difficult. It has been 
necessary to trap, several grizzly boars from the auto campgrounds 
and two grizzlies have boon killed during the past year because 
they were considered dangerous in the utility areas. Two grizzly 
bears have been shipped from the park this season. From figures 
secured during a bear census taken in August, 1936, it is estimated 
that there are about 286 to 300 grizzlies present in the park. 

Buffalo. During the past year the buffalo herd that 
normally ranges along the Lamar river her, been reduced by 52 head.' 
This reduction was accomplished by the shipment of 10 live animals, 
the transplanting of 35 live buffalo from the Lamar herd to the 
west side of the park where they were liberated on Fountain flats, 
and the slaughtering of 7 animals for the Crow Indians. During 
the spring of 1936, 36 buffalo were transplanted to Hoyden valley. 
Observations made during the winter ana early spring of 1937 in- 
dicate that this plant has been entirely successful, but it has 
not yet been possible to determine the outcome of the plant on 
Fountain flats. A census of the buffalo herd, taken during the 
past winter, revealed an actual count of 647 animals and the es- 


timated size of the Yellowstone herd is 756 buffalo, exclusive of 
this years calf crop. From all observations and reports received 
this spring it appears that the 1937 calf crop is probably above 
normal. During the winter, buffalo, as was the situation with other 
big game animals, were scattered over a wide area of the park. Snow 
conditions were such that many small bands were able to winter in 
isolated sections of the park without particular hardship or shortage 
of food. Approximately 400 head of buffalo, at a maximum, were ob- 
served on the feed grounds at the buffalo ranch last winter. During 
previous seasons it has been a practice to maintain a buffalo show 
herd. This herd was formerly maintained in a large enclosed pasture 
with a smaller enclosure into which the buffalo were run during the 
daytime in order that park visitors might observe them at close T^^nr-G, 
This season the practice of driving the animals into a show corral 
during the daytime has been discontinued and they have been permitted 
to run free in a large pasture located, on Antelope creek a few hundred 
yards from the road, where visitors may view them under more natural 
conditions and in a more desirable setting even though they are at a 
greater distance. This practice has proven entirely satisfactory. 

Elk. The summer of 1936 was comparatively dry and only 
a moderate amount of forage was -produced on the winter elk range in- 
side of the park. It was believed that the already overgrazed and bad- 
ly deteriorated range would suffer severely during the winter months 
and it was decided to continue the reduction of the Northern Elk herd 
that was started during the winter of 1934-35. It was agreed by all 
parties concerned that the most desirable method of reduction would 
bo by hunters kills in areas to the north of and outside of the boun- 
daries of the park. The moderate snow conditions which prevailed in 
the park were not of sufficient severity to cause these animals to 
drift out to winter range in areas which were open to hunting. The 
reduction problem became one of the major activities of the Protection 
Department during the months of November to February, inclusive. 
Repeated attempts were made to drive elk out of the park into open 
hunting territory with little or practically no success. .Slaughtering 
operations were started only after it was definitely determined that 
there could be no possible drift, either natural or forced, from the 
Slough creek area to open hunting territory. Slaughtering operations 
wore conducted in areas where there was no likelihood of interfering 
with the drift of elk to areas outside of the park where they would 
become available, for hunters. The total reduction of the Northern 
herd amounted to 846 animals, 255 of which wore huntors kills, 169 
shipped alive for transplanting and restocking purposes, 596 slaughter- 
ed and the meat distributed to Indian and relief agencies, and 27 
recorded as miscellaneous deaths resulting from gunshot wounds or in- 
juries received during trapping operations. 


Range studios wore continued throughout the entire yeEr and a 
series of observations and experiments were started in an attempt 
to determine the forage requirements of elk as compared with 
domestic stock and other game animals. These experioments have 
not yet been carried to a point where any definite conclusions 
can be arrived at but it is believed that some valuable informa- 
tion can be obtained that will assist immeasurably in solving game 
management problems in other regions as well as in Yellowstone. 

Other G ame Animals . Deer, Bighorn Shcop, and 'Moose 
have been observed to bo in good condition and slightly on the 
increase during the past year. These animals may be viewed by 
park visitors in many sections of the park, the door end moose 
being especially prevalent and unafraid. Mountain shcop may be 
observed during the summer in the vicinity of Mt. V'ashburn. 
However, they are comparatively wild and can be viewed only at 
a distance. During the winter months the greater percentage of 
the sheep in the park ere to be found concentrated in the vicin- 
ity of Mt. Syerts and they are often 'observed within a few feet 
of the road from Mammoth to Gr.rdiner, Probably the best moose 
show in the park is at Willow Park where as many as fifteen to 
twenty of these animals c°n be seen at times grazing in the 
swamps end in. the willow brush which is their natural habitat, 

This season has been particularly outstanding for its un- 
usual wildlife exhibits over the entire park. Game animals have 
become unafraid and bolder during the last few seasons and elk/, 
doer, moose, bears, buffalo, bighorn sheep, and antelope may be 
obsorvce 1 by a.ny park visitor who takes the time to look for them 
as he drives along the highways. In many instances they may be 
viewed from within a few yards or a few hundred feet, providing 
excellent opportunities for the, -nature .lover and the amateur photo- 

">!« -■* 

— ^^fcH^y-- — 

The following tabulation shows the number of game animals in 
the park in accordance with game censuses mode during the past year: 


Antelope . . % 600 G27 


Black 195 621 

Grizzly . . 98 286 

Buffalo . . . . 674 706 

Deer 84-3 907 


Northern Herd . 8; 794 9;G73 

Gallatin Herd 2,1' 2,418 

Interior of the 'Park ..... '520 '520 

Total' in Park' .*...... 11,512 12,611 

Moose' i ..... . 270 702 

Sheep, Bighorn 175 200 

In accordance with re coramehdat ion's United States Public 
Health Service, a rodent control project was launched during the sum-' 
mer of 1936. It was deemed advisable to try to reduce the mice, rats, 
gophers, and marmots in the vicinity of campgrounds, cabins, hotels, 
Government buildings, and other locations where there was a concentra- 
tion of park visitors. This work was carried on throughout the fall 
of 1936 and again started in the spring of 1937, A satisfactory re- 
duction in the gopher end marmot population seemed to have been ac- 
complished in practically all of the utility areas before the regu- 
lar park serson opened and this work has not been continued during 
the summer to any extensive degree. 

Bird s. There have been no material changes in the bird popu- 
lation, the species observed, or the conditions affecting birdlife 
during the past year. Wildfowl have continued to be observed on the 
streams and lakes in the park that are kept free of ice by warm springs, 
hot water tributaries and geyser formations. Although last winter 
was an extremely cold one there was little change in the areas of 
water open and available for waterfowl. During the past year efforts 
for providing additional protection for trumpeter swans have been con- 
tinued. Every effort has been made to discourage park visitors and 
employees from visiting the lakes where swan were known to be nesting. 
That these efforts have been worth while is evidenced by the fact that 
in at least three places these birds have been successful in bringing 
forth a brood of cygnets this year whore they were unsuccessful last 
season. Swan have been observed to be nesting on Trumpeter lake, 
Swan lake, Grizzly lake, vxxl Beach springs. In each location young 
cygnets have been observed and reported. 


Fish Planting . The United States Bureau of Fisheries took 
approximately 25,000,000 blackspotted eggs at their Yellowstone 
lake hatchery in 1936, 65$ of which were turned over to the 
National Park Service for distribution and planting in the waters 
of Yellowstone Park or in other places. Of the 14,625,000 eggs 
allotted to this Service, 8,013,900 were returned to the waters 
of Yellowstone Park while the remainder were shipped to other areas 
under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service or to the sur- 
rounding states where they would be planted to the mutual benefit 
of the states and the Park Service. • • 

The following tabulation indicates the total number of fish 
planted in Yellowstone Park during the past year: 


Blackspotted ' 8,013, 396 

Grayling ' 1 , 998, 000 , , 

Ra inbow ' • 636 , 596 

Loch Leven 95 , 200 

Eastern Brook __ __40 ,800 

Total 10,784,492 

Fishing in the park during the letter half of the summer of 
1936 was not as good as it usually is but this is attributed to the 
fact that all of the streams and. lakes in the park v. ere unusually 
low and temperatures were considerably above normal, with a result 
that the waters became so warn that fish would not rise to artificial 
bait. A total of 102,966 fish wore reported caught by park visitors 
during the past year. It is "estimated that this figure, compiled 
from inquiries made as visitors leave the park, represents less 
than 50$ of the actual number of fish taken from the waters of the 

Law Enforcement. For several seasons prior to 1936 it was 
impossible to maintain an adequate patrol of the highways of the 
park and of the small camping areas and roadside picnic areas and 
service and side roads leading off of the main loop road. Vie 
had only four old motorcycles for this work and it was considered 
unsafe to operate them on the highways because of their poor mechan- 
ical condition and because it was difficult to "find experienced 
operators among our temporary ranger Personnel. One patrol car 
was purchased in 1936 and three additional patrol cars were pur- 
chased and put into operation in Yellowstone early in the 1937 
season. With four patrolmen on the roads in the park this season 
it has been possible to regalate traffic much, more efficiently and 
to -prevent a great deal of speeding, reckless driving, and drunken 
driving. This has resulted in a decided decrease in serious auto- 


mobile accidents and has permitted investigation and reporting of 
a greater percentage of minor accidents. It has also made possible 
the regulation of camping outside of regular campground areas and 
provided better protection for all areas along the road which are not 
close to a development area or points of outstanding scenic attraction. 
Ranger patrol cars are equipped with tow ropes, first aid kits, 
emergency repair tools, flares, and forest fire fighting tools. 

Seventy-seven law enforcement cases were handled in the past 
year where arrests and comnlaints were made, and a number of other 
law enforcement cases were handled where no ccrr>laint was made against 
the violators. Convictions were secured on all but one of the cases 
which were presented before United States Commissioner T. Paul Wilcox. 
The following tabulation shows the arrests made, classified according 
to offenses, and the total amount of fines assessed for each class of 
offense : 


.Speeding 24 § 123.50 

Recl.less driving 21 347 . 50 

Driving while intoxicatec 5 105.00 

Catch inf & possessing ?nore than limit of fish 4 57.00 

Taking fish under legal size 1* 

Fishing with live bait 1. 25.00 

Petty larceny, ' 5 ;, ' : 10.00 

Automobile theft 2# 10.00 

: . Hunting in the park 3 60.00 

Carrying unsealed firearms without permit ... 1 5.00 

Molesting wild animals in the park 4 70.00 

Building campfires wiiitiout a permit 1 5.00 

Disorderly c onduct 5y ; y 60.00 

Transporting paic'i passengers 1 25.00 

* Case dismissed. 

**In all cases but one violators served jail sentences. 

jf One case bound over to District Coirrt and one case settled 
with ten dollar fine and five day jail sentence. Vehicle 
involved in this case was valued at less than v 25. #§ Three 
of the; five violators served jail sentences. 

Accidents^. A total of 109 automobile accidents were Tcrjorted 
and investigated in the park during the year as compared with 105 
accidents reported last year. This represents an increase of four 
accidents or less than 4$ as compared with an increase of more than 
30$ in travel, mostly automobile travel. Of the 109 accidents re- 
ported this year, three resulted in fatalities to four persons, seven- 
teen resulted in severe ncrsonal injuries, and 28 resulted in serious 


property damage. All four of the persons killed in auto acci- 
dents were employed in the park. 

Four accidents in which park visitors were severely burned 
in hot pools or geysers were reported during the year. One ac- 
cident resulted in the death of the victim. 

__~^ ^ - -■••' S-c -'^^r 







j lM„4^ -^ ' ^ ^ ^ "~ v -; d 


The Engineerinr Department organizes and directs ell road end 
trail construction and maintenance work carried on by force account 
or day labor and has charge of all general engineering projects in 
the park. Activities include surveys and the preparation of maps and 
plans for sewer and water installations, topographic surveys, design 
and construction of buildings and various other physical improvements. 

The personnel consists of Park Engineer C. A. Lord, Assistant 
Engineer Frank Lucas, and General Foreman Deate White, together with 
such temporary seasonal engineers and field assistants as the volume 
of construction and engineering work may warrant. The direction and 
supervision of ECW engineering is also assigned to this section and 
all EOT engineers work directly under the Park Engineer. 

Road maintenance activities cover a highway system totalling 401 
miles of roadway, 350 miles of which lie within the park boundaries 
and 51 miles comprising the approach road sections to the .south and 
east entrances and a short dead end section at the southwest corner of 
the park. This work is carried on by road crews located permanently 
at 15 section camps within the park limits and one crew for each of 
the approach road sections. In addition to the permanently located 
crews, one mobile crew is engaged in the repair arc construction of 
oiled mat surfaces throughout the pork and a second travelling crew 
on the re-pair of bridges and other maintenance items of 'a mere special- 
ized Character. Maintenance items' include snow removal, slide re- 
moval, general surface maintenance, and maintenance of roadside clean- 
up or road side protection. Snow removal for the period included the 
handling of approximately one and. one quarter million cubic yards of 
snow, for the most part by means of rotary snow plows, but also re- 
quiring some power shovel and hand work. Materiel removed from rock 
and earth slides totaled three thousand cubic yards. 

Completed major road construction, under the supervision of the 
Bureau of Public Roads, consisted of 15 miles of grading under three 
contracts, 25 miles of base course surfacing, and 36 miles of bitumin- 
ous surfacing. There were also three contracts covering the construc- 
tion of twelye bridges and culverts over 20 feet in length. Construc- 
tion of the Fishing Bridge, at Lrd:.c- Junction was about ninety nor cent 
complete at the close of the period and the structure will be onened 
to traffic during the present season. Contracts were let for the com- 
pletion of the grading between Old Faithful and Ucst Thumb, construc- 
tion of the bridge across the Firehole River in the vicinity of Old 
Faithful, and the building of several developed parking areas in the 
Old Faithful area. Accomplishments on approach roads consisted of 
the completion of surfacing and oiling of 11.5 miles of the Red Lodge- 


Cooke road adjacent to the northeast entrance and 95 per cent of the 
surfacing and bridge contracts on the east approach or Shoshone 
forest road. 

Force account construction work was carried on for the most 
part with balances from previously programmed funds, only two 
allotments being made for this class of work, one from emergency 
funds and one from Public Works funds. 

An. early spring snow slide followed by heavy wash almost 
completely destroyed the wooden steps and viewing platform at the 
Upper Falls of the Yellowstone river in the Canyon area. Funds 
for rebuilding this structure were provided from the reserve for 
emergency work. The now platform occupies the rock bench previous- 
ly used as a foundation and the wooden steps have been replaced by 
stone, providing a structure that is practically indestructible 
and in keeping with the rock walls of the Canyon. 

The existing sewage disposal system for the Old Faithful 
area became inadequate to care for the increased demands with thu 
result that a considerable quantity of raw sewage was escaping to 
the Firehole river. Public Works funds were obtained for the con- 
struction cf additional collection tanks and sludge bed, pumping 
equipment, and building to house the pumps and chlorine treatment 

The Blacktail Deer crock bridge, rencrted twenty per cent 
complete at the close of the previous period, was completed and 
opened for use. This bridge is a steel suspension tyre crossing 
the Yellowstone river near the mouth of Blacktail Deer creek and 
servos the Crevice and Cottonwood creek areas on the north boundary 
of the park. 

The Mr-moth water and power development project was completed 
early in the season, the principal items of work consisting of a 
general cleenup and landscaping of the project and the installation 
of chlorine treatment facilities at the reservoir. 

Contract items on the central water system for Old Faithful 
were completed early in the fall. Connections to the existing 
distribution system were made during the spring months by force 
account end the project will bo ready to operate soon after the 
onening cf the tourist season. 


The work of the Sanitation Department is carried on under the 
supervision of H. B. Hcramcn of the U. S. Public Health' Service and 
under direct chare© of William Wiggins-, Master plunber. The plumbing 
organization consists of master plumber Wiggins, one foreman plumber, 
and two plumber's helpers, the latter three positions havinr been es- 
tablished in the spring of 1937, This force is augmented during the 
summer by a number of skilled employees and laborers. 

The work of this department includes the maintenance, . operation, 
and construction work of water systems, sewer systems, incinerate:, 
heating systems, refrigeration plants, sheet metal work, and garbage 


During the fiscal year work completed in Mammoth consisted of 
manufacturing and installing 795 feet of flitters on roofs; repair! 
20 heating stoves and SO cooking stoves; installing a new kitchen sink 
and, 100-gallon hot water tank at Dr. Bauer's quarters; installing - 
new laundry tub in Roger Miller's quarters; completing the plumbir , 
heating, and ventilsti?" systems in Utility building; laying 200 feet 
of. 3/4" pipe for water line tc tent; installing one 10 h.p. 
electric water pump to supply water -for domestic reservoir; installing 
one 1 h.p. electric pump for circulating' Water through chlorine machine; 
installing new 24'- gate valve in valve chamber ■ t. reservoir; installing 
grease trap at Mammoth mess; Installing two heavy grade I4il burning 
heating plants complete with tanks in building Kb. 1;' reaving ol> 
and installing complete*: new bathroom fixtures' .in Mr. Lord's quarters; 
placing concrete top on domestic reservoir; tCLacins: cohcrevfce manhole 
and laying 300 feet of 18" steel pipe at old reservoir; installing 
cesspool at Utility building; -fcistallirig neW 100-gallon hot rater tank 
at Superintendent Roger's quarters; installing floor drain '.in chlorine 
house at reservoir; installin.' Ventura meter ''act Power house 1 ; installing 
Clematis gulch drinkinr fountain; constructing cesspool and 'installing 
sink ana sewer to cesspool in Mr. Beatty's quarters. 

At Madison Junction the neeess&ry ex cava ion was me<h. raid 34 feat 
of drainage tile at the water intake v, r as laid. . ... . . '.; 

Tha work at Old Faithful consisted of installing two complete 
bathrooms at the ranger naturalist's quarters; constructing cement 
sewage collecting, tank, installing ?' ,/Lir gas engine sewage pumps; instal- 
ling .1,000-gallon gas trade underground; installing 900 fact of 8" dis- ■ 
charge line, 200 feet of. S. ,! .sproyin- line and 1100 feet of 4 ;; spraying 
line; connections between three wooden . sewage tanks with 8 : - steel 
pipe," also. 6 '•' drain connecting each tank to tha newly constructed 
sludge bee 1 . 


At- Fishing Bridge constructed and installed 35 new camping 
tables; excavated and laid 50 feet of drainage tile at water in- 
take; changed 480 feet of 4 inch pine line on Fishing Bridge; and 
installed new toilet at incinerator bunkhouse. 

A two-compartment sink was installed at the Lake mess, and 
15 caraping tables were constructed for the tourist camp. 

At the Canyon a 200-gallon hot water tank and heater was in- 
stalled at the bear feeding grounds, and a house was constructed 
for housing a heating plant; also installed toilet and wash basin 
at the ranger station. 

At Tower Falls the necessary excavation was made and 240 
feet of 1/2 inch water pipe line was installed. ^ 

/ \ 

A new cook stove and a 40-gallon hot water tank/was installed 

at the Buffalo ranch; while the cesspool at the Gardiner checking 

station was re-covered. 

a. K.*y 



All electrical work, the power plant and radio activities, arc- 
under the supervision of the chief electrician. Lloyd V.'. Seasholtz 
was appointed on August 24 by transfer from Yosemi + e National Perk to 
succeed Charles Dale, deceased, as chief electrician. Besides Mr. 
Seasholtz the permanent electrical department organization consists 
of three electricians, and the force is augmented during the summer by 
several skilled employees and laborers. 

The work in this department consisted of connecting and installing 
lighting service, fixtures, switches, and convenience outlets in nu -- 
ber of quarters and the Utility building; installing automatic compen- 
sators, concrete transformer vault, transformer end conduit for the 
Utility building; wiring the Old Faithful sewage plants for lightj.3 ■; 
install ing meters; repairing and installing electric refrigerators and 
electric ranges; installing power cable for the new chlorine house; at 
the Mammoth, reservoir; replacing light poles at Ma. moth ; changing over 
3-1/2 miles of the Cooke line to metallic circuit; laying approximate- 
ly 500 feet of telephone cable across new parking area and read at 
Fishing Bridge, and approximately 1400 feet on Mt, Washburn; installing 
cable into new chlorine house; installing three now telematic stations 
to supplement the present system. 

The Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Comnany completed its 
new copper circuit between Mammoth and Cooke on December 28. This 
circuit makes it 'possible to aire the first direct connected telephone 
service to Cooke, Montana, 

A test table was made end installed in the telephone office with 
all necessary equipment and connections tc make tests on all telephone 
circuits connected to our system. 

For the first time the National Park Service and the onorstors 
have a cceimcn telephone directory, the printing thereof having been 
furnished by the Yellowstone Par;- Company, The directory has tended 
to improve the service for all usor-s of the park telephone system* 

During a heavy wet snow storm in June approximately 7 miles of 
east entrance telephone line was broken down and heavy repairs irere 
neceseary to it in first class condition. 

A now antenna was received and n transmission lino construe 
for the headquarter' s radio set, and there was installed a new power 
transformer and milliamporc meter with s filter shock coil and c. e w 
Peck Preselector, a new 585 Supreme radio analyzer, and a 570 signal 
generator wore purchased to aid in the repair end adjustment of the 
r ad i o e qu ipmc nt . 


A new short wave automobile receiver was purchased and in- 
stalled in a patrol car with satisfactory reception obtained with- 
in 40 miles of Mammoth. 

The park's 10-watt transmitter from Lake ranger station was 
set up at the Giant geyser on May 30 as it was to be used to 
broadcast a few minutes in connection with the National Broadcast- 
ing Company and United Airlines park program, but due to adverse 
weather conditions this part of the program was omitted. 

During the month of June there was received through the 
San Francisco office four semi -portable radio short v. r ave units; 
complete with three different size battery containers with bat- 
teries. Tests of the new units showed them superior to the old 
type sets in use. All radio equipment was in operation during 
the year with very satisfactory results. 


All carpenter work is -aider the general supervision of mas- 
ter .carpenter T. A. Bowman, and painting is under the supervision 
of master painter Lee N. Tompkins. The forces are- augmentei dur- 
ing the summer by several carpenters, carpenter's helpers, and 



The Mechanical department is under the sunervisio-n of mas- 
ter mechanic Robert R. Robinson and includes 6 permanent mechanics, 
1 permanent handyman mechanic, 1 permanent blacksmith, two temporary 
mechanics, 3 temporary handyman mechanics, and 1 temporary black- 

The work carried on by this department consists of the ms in- 
tenance, repairing and overhauling of all fixed inc 1 motorized 
equipment, including trucks, tractors, cars, graders, and fixed 
equipment such as electric power plant equipment, water and sewage 
pumping plants, etc. Ir. addition to the above mentioned equipment 
several hundred small tools such as picks, shovels, saws, axes, 
etc. are reconditioned each year. 

During the 1937 fiscal year one 4-ton four-wheel drive dump 
truck, one 3-j-ton freight truck, one I-'.- ton fire truck with 
equipment, and one Snogo snow plow were pure]. '.a sod. One 5-passon- 
ger sedan and three ranger patrol cars were purchased as passen- 
ger cars. Various small tools and shop equipment wore also pur- 
chased during the year. 


Safety first instructions for the men in the chops rere con- 
tinued again this year. Classes in auto mechanics for CCC enrollces 
of the Mammoth camp were held in the shops during the winter. 

The pooling of all cars and trucks has been continued this year 
and is functioning very well. Trailer hitches have been installed 
on all pickup trucks to be used for fire suppression work.. Several 
pieces of equipment were manufactured in the shops such as fire equip- 
ment trailers, etc. 

The moving of shop equipment from the old shop to the new 
Utility building was started on May 27 and continued, during most o 
the month of June. Individual electric motor drives were installed 
on the lathes, millina machine, power cutoff saw, drill presses, etc. 
This eliminates the cumbersome overhead lire sh&ftinr and is an 
added safety factor in the operation of the machines. Power-gre i 
equipment v/as installed as well as 200 feet of overhead track and car- 
riers for the chain hoists. Car lifts are in one ration and. the parts 
and stock room has been completely rearranged anci U jntoriedi 

A Safety Committee was organized under the Chairmanship of 
master mechanic Robinson and several discussions were held in con- 
junction with various department I tings. An < rti nsive safety 
campaign was conducted in an endeavor to cut down accidents as much 

as possible. 


The average inventory of storehouse .^cci: carried at Yellow stone 
approximates ^60,000. The storehouse facilities consist of one large 
storehouse end storage space in several additional buildings, includ- 
ing a largo lumber sled, bull: storage plants for gasoline one fuel 
oil, one outside storage compound and fourteen individual gasoline 
stations. The storehouse force: consists of one storekeeper, one per- 
manent warehouseman, one permanent card clerk, and six temporary 
warehousemen. Materials totaling approximately ,,'^50,000 each year 
are handled through this storehouse. Equipment card records are also 
maintained amounting to approximatelj 0500,000. Operations throughout 
the year were nori.:^l with every attempt being made to economize as 
much as possible. Temporary warehousemen wore not colled back until 
later i.i the season. The increasing amount of materials and supplies 
sold to other Government agencies, such as the CCC camps, Bureau of 
Public Roads, Bureau of Fisheries, and others has r>la.ced en increasing 
burden on the nark's warehouse facilities and personnel. 



The maintenance of small messes in Yellowstone National Park 
has always been a problem due to the fact that high labor and 
trucking costs to these individual messes make the average total 
meal costs for all messes considerably higher. At the beginning 
of the 1937 season due to the increasing costs of food items it 
was necessary to increase the meal rates from 45# to 50^ for in- 
dividual meals and from i>33 per month to $35,10 per month for 
board by the month. Considerable saving was made by eliminating 
some of the smaller messes and combining others. Further savings 
will be made by installing refrigeration facilities in some of 
the larger messes. During the past year the Washingten office 
was able to secure several restaurant- type refrigerators from 
Federal Housing Administration property. These refrigerators 
will be installed in the larger messes on the loop road. Pre- 
viously these messes have had no refrigeration which has re- 
sulted in quite frequent losses of fresh meats and vegetables. 
Five kerosene refrigerators have been purchased for the 
messes and it is anticipated that a considerable saving will 
result which should offset the greatly increased cost of food 
items within the past two years. 


During a part of the fiscal year 1937, July until October, 
four CCC camps were located and operating in the park. Cam: 
YNP-1 at Mammoth Hot Springs was the only camp to remain in 
the pari: over the winter months. In May and June of 1937 
camps YNP-2, 3, and 5 were again occupied by Fifth Corps com- 

Many worthwhile jobs have been undertaken and finished by 
our CCC camps in a workmanlike manner and in accordance with Park- 
Service standards. Approximately 63,000 CCC man-days have been 
utilized on our program in the past fiscal year. Durir.g the 
winter very little time was lost due to inclement weather. Al- 
though the men worked under difficult conditions at times, due 
to storms, a high morale was always evident. Spending a winter 
in Yellowstone Park is extremely alluring to all earollees. 

Safety first methods have boon taught and discussed to 
very good advantage. 

Educational programs have been conducted at each of the camps 
during the past year giving both academic subjects and instruction 
on the job. The supervisory and facilitating personnel have taken 
a big interest in this work and it is felt that satisfactory re- 


suits have been accomplished in preparing the enrollees with the fund- 
amentals for trades and occupations. Regular Park Service personnel 
have also shewn a great interest in this work and several have con- 
ducted lecture classes on different subjects. 

The : isory and facilitating personnel for the -oast yecr 
have been, with some exceptions, well qualified and conscientious em- 
ployees. Fine cooperation has continued to exist between the Army and 
Park Service. Due to the difficulty of obtaining ohe necessary super- 
visory personnel this spring the work he s beer considerably delayed. 


The business of the park operators was ir step with the large 
increase in travel and all of the companies reported excellent profits 
at the ecd of the 1936 season. Due to the tremendous increase in 
travel the accommodations in the park were taxed to capacity most of 
the summer, particularly the housekeeping cabins lodges. At the 
Lake hotel the company opened the girl's dormitory about the middle 
of July and provided 43 additional rooms to supplement lodge accommo- 
dations. The Lake hotel remained closed during the 1936 season, but 
was reopened for the 1937 reason after having be n closed for the 
previous five years. The Mammoth 'hotel provided overnight accommoda- 
tions only during the 1936 season, but with the alterations completed 
in connection with the new Mammoth layout it was nossible to get meals 
and lodgings at Mammoth at the start of the 1937 season in the hotel 
group. The slight difference in price between hotel and lodge accommo- 
dations resulted in most of the rail visitors using the hotels there- 
by leaving the lodge space to accommodate motorists. This arrange- 
ment appears to have worked very satisfactorily and has resulted in 
the occupancy of most of the space in the hotels which directly affec- 
ted the reopening of the Lake hotel and improve] tt Mammoth, 

Activities carried on by the various operators follow: 

Yellow ston e Park Co mpan y. With the organisation of the Yellow- 
stone Park Company before the end of the 1936 fisc 3 "ear this company 
took over the operations of the hotels, lodges, housekeeping cabins, 
cafeterias, transportation, and boat systems. At Gardiner the com- 
pany completed during the winter a new warehouse and 41 new VJhite 14- 
passenger buses, 3 Buick sedans, 2 Ford coupes, i Ford pickup truck, 
and 2 Ford dump trucks were purchased by the transportation line. 

At the Mammoth hotel most of the old hotel building was wrecked 
and the new dining room completed. The new lobby and lounge rooms 
wore about 90% completed by the end of the fiscal year, while the 
cabin site drainage and grading- was about 95% complete. In the tour- 


ist cabins the floors and furniture were repainted. 

At Old Faithful a 1200-barrel oil storage tank was installed 
at the hotel, two new oil storage tanks of 408-barrel capacity 
each ivere installed at the lodge, most of the guest cabins were 
decorated, floors painted, furniture repainted, shelves and clothes 
hangers installed, mirrors placed p.hove wash stands, electric 
lighting equipment improved, new window drapes, bedsteads, and 
rugs installed; part of the recreational hall was changed to use 
as a tap room. In the tourist cabin group 22 improved type log 
and frame cabins with sinks and running water were constructed 
while all furniture and floors in the log and frame cabins were 

A new 20 K.W. diesel generator was purchased for West 
Thumb . 

At West Yellowstone the company constructed a new driver's 
and agent's bunkhouse. 

The roof of the Lake hotel was reshingled, the kitchen re- 
modeled, two oil tanks of 480-barrel capacity each were installed, 
and extensive repairs were made on the hotel lobby including some 
bathrooms on the first floor being changed into a sun room over- 
looking the lake. At Lake lodge one oil storage tank of 400-barrel 
capacity was installed. 

Seventy- six log and frame type cabins and . r 50 improved type 
log and frame cabins with sinks and running water were constructed 
at the Fishing Bridge, two comfort stations were constructed, and 
furniture and equipment for the new Cabins purchased. A new 10' 
K, W. Kohler electric lighting plant, a. new electric salad case, 
and a new Cold-Bain-Marie were installed at the cafeteria. 

For the boating division at the Lake the company purchased 
25 new rowboats and three new fishing launches. 

One oil storage tank of 1200-barrel cap- city was installed 
at the Canyon hotel, the entire outside of the hotel was painted, 
and the kitchen pantry remodeled. At the Canyon lodge an oil 
storage tank of 408-barrel capacity and the necessary oil burn- 
ing equipment were installed and a new hardwood floor placed in 
the lodge. In the tourist cabin unit the annex to the cafeteria 
was completed and on June 20 the company started the construction 
of 12 new log and frame cabins to replace old franc cnC. canvas 
types. . 


Thirty-nine log and frame type cabins were moved from Mammoth 
lodge to Camp Roosevelt, cement footings were built for the cabins 
and electric lights installed. A new log and frame comfort station 
was installed and equipped in this area, also sewer line constructed 
from the new station to the main line. The roof of the main building 
and all cabins were repainted. 

In the Telegraph Department the company completed the stringing 
of new telephone wire between Old Faithful, Mammoth, and Canyon, and 
between Mammoth and Gardiner while a new telephone switchboard was 
installed in the Mammoth hotel lobby. 

Ha milt on Stores, Inc. Outside of the usual repairs this opera- 
tor had no building changes during the year. The swimming pool z b 
Old Faithful continued to prove very popular and was well patronized. 
Meals and lodgings were provided at the C. A. Hamilton Stores at Old 
Faithful and Lake prior to and after the regular pari: season. 

Pry or Stor es. The necessary repairs were made at the various 
Pryor operations and there was installed in the Canyon store an elec- 
tric refrigerator, carbonator, range, and laundry equipment. The con- 
struction of a new dormitory at the Canyon for the housing of employees 
was started in May and was near completion by the end of the fiscal 

Haynes, Inc . New picture shops and a general store building 
were constructed at the Tower Falls parking area and on the site of 
Camp Roosevelt next to the main building, both of which were put into 
operation at the beginning of the 1937 season. The new building in 
the Tower Falls parking area was dedicated on October 23 in connection 
with the annual ranger's picnic. Mr. Haynes provided all food and 
entertainment for the occasion, which was participated in by most of 
the Mammoth residents and members of the Protection -Department. 

Major repairs to the Haynes shops included re-roofing the shop 
at Canyon and the photo finishing building at Old Faithful and com- 
pletely remodeling and re-wiring the former Tower Falls store into an 
employees dormitory. 

Nearly 30,000 original negatives were completely cross-indexed 
and lists, both numerically and alphabetically, of the 1500 principal 
ones were published for free distribution. 

The principal new publication undertaken was "The Story of 
Yellowstone Geysers" by park naturalist C. Max Bauer, which was 
illustrated and published by the Haynes, Inc. 

The corporation's name was changed from Haynes Picture Shops, Inc. 
to Haynes, Inc. 


The corporation operated during the year 15 shops through- 
out the park including three which contained general store 
items (Tower Falls area) as well as photof inishing plants at 
Mammoth and Old Faithful. 

Fifteen hundred (1500) new negatives of the park were 
taken, exclusive of miniatures and motion pictures, and were 
added to their collection. 


The Mammoth hospital was closed on September 17 and all 
hospital cases during the winter were handled in the Livingston 
hospital. The Mammoth hospital was reopened June 16. In 
October Dr. Paul T. Gailmard succeeded Dr. Ivan T. Budaeff as 
park physician. Dr. Budaeff found it necessary to be absent 
from his duties most of the summer due tc an eye injury and Dr. 
Gailmard substituted during his absence. 'Following his return 
from special treatment for his eye injury, Dr. Budaeff resigned 
to engage in his profession in San Francisco. 

Three hundred forty-three cases were handled in the hos- 
pital during the fiscal year, which included 81 minor injuries, 
51 major injuries, 165 sick, 6 pool burns, 18 major surgicals, 
10 minor surgicals, 8 contagions, 2 confinements, and 2 bear 
bites. Dr. Windsor traveled 17,600 miles in connection with 
the park medical service while his associates traveled 15,300 
miles. The ambulance covered 8,120 miles. One hundred eighteen 
calls were made in the park, nine tours of the park were made, 
1310 office calls were received, and- 6,675 calls were received 
by the nurses at the dispensaries. Nine deaths occurred during 
the fiscal year, one in the Mammoth hospital from a pool burn, 
and two in the ^Livingston hospital, one from "Leukemia and one 
from cancer, and six outside of the hospital, one from a fallen 
tree, one in a truck accident, and four of heart failure. •, 

'^.«/ v b.i'* *■* 



The Bureau of Public Roads, U. S. Public Health Service, Bureau 
of Entomology, Bureau of Fisheries, Forest Service, and War Depart- 
ments have all cooperated to the fullest extent with the officials 
of the National Park Service in Yellowstone during the fiscal year. 

Weather Bure au. Mr. A. L. King who filled the position of 
observer for the local weather bureau since November , '1935, was trans- 
ferred to the Kansas City office in September of 1956, his position 
being filled by C, L. Howard of Evanston", Illinois who arrived on 
September 29 to take over his new duties. He is assisted by Thomas 
S. Southwick. 

The mean temperature for the yeer ending June 30 was 43.1°, as 
compared with a normal mean temperature of 38.5°. July, August, 
September, October, December, and May were above normal, the remain- 
ing months being below normal. January established a new record for 
the coldest month of record with a mean of 2.2° which is 16.0° below 
normal. The nearest approach to this was January, 1930, with a mean 
temperature of 4.8°. Otherwise there were no temperature extremes. 
The number of days with a maximum temperature of 80° or over was 32; 
with a maximum of 90° or more, 3. On 35 days the minimum temperature 
was zero or below. Temperature extremes for the year were: high, 
91, on July 18; low, -30, on January 6. 

Precipitation for the year was 14.70 inches, or 1.36 inches 
above normal. September, October, November, and May were deficient 
in moisture, the remaining months being above normal, The seasonal 
snowfall amounted to 114$ of normal, or 101.2 inches. The greatest 
twenty-four hour snowfall occurred in December with a fall of 7.8 
inches. The greatest depth of snow on the ground (at Mammoth Hot 
Springs) was 12.1 Inches on February 7. 

Sunshine was recorded 58 per cent of the possible time. There 
were 87 clear days, 110 partly cloudy, and 168 cloudy days. The 
average wind velocity was 8.0 miles per hour with the prevailing 
direction being southwest. The maximum velocity, for sustained five 
minute period, was 57 miles per hour from the southwest on September 2, 

The weather during the park season of 1936 was favorable from' 
the tourist point of view. Temperatures ran somewhat above normal, 
but lacked prolonged extremes. Precipitation, sunshine, and number 
of clear days were normal for the neriod except for part of July 
which had more rainfall and cloudiness than usual. 


Bureau of P ublic Roads . During the past year the Bureau 
of Public Roads has expended approximately $1,400,000 on the 
construction of major roads in Yellowstone National Park. 

This work consisted of three grading jobs involving 15 
miles of highway, of which 0.913 miles through the Lamar Canyon, 
was constructed during the winter months of 1936. There were 
also under contract 25 miles of base course surfacing of which 
13.7 miles were located on the East Entrance App r0 ach Road to 
Yellowstone National Park; 36 miles of bituminous surfacing, 
as well as the base bituminous surfacing of approximately 35 
miles of highway were completed late in the fall of last year; 
12 miles of the base bituminous surfacing was completed on the 
East Entrance Route, 5 miles on Section 1-E of the Grand Loop 
and the balance of the mileage on the South Entrance Route 
No. 4; 12 bridges were unfler contract including the lor struc- 
ture at Fishing Bridge and 8 major structures on the East 
Entrance Approach Highway to the park. 

Further investigation of the 1-E Section of' the Grand 
Loop was completed, as well as drainage investigation and 
foundation investigation of bridge sites on the Lamar, Gibbon, 
and Yellowstone rivers. 

Post Office. Receipts of the post office for the fiscal 
year ending June 30, 1937 kent pace with park travel showing 
an increase of approximately 12$ over the corresponding year 
ending June 30, 1936, 

The Department granted permission to establish the Thumb 
postal station which became a contract station July 1, 1936, 
making at the present time six postal stations located through- 
out the park. Two of these stations are classified, Old 
Faithful and Fishing Bridge respectively; the other four are 
contract stations, Canj-on, Lake, Thumb, ind Tower Falls. 

'The star route service that was put in effect June 12, 
1936, did net prove at all satisfactory, so instead of the one 
that was operating last year, permission was granted" to estab- 
lish two routes. These were -nut into effect June 20, so this' 
year all stations receive mail the dry it arrives in the park. 

Although the new nost office building was started last 
year very little work was done. Mr. Siegfus, the original con- 
tractor, had his contract cancelled December 1, and the bonding 
company re-let the contract to Coomer 2c Small of Sioux City, 
Iowa. Since this firm took over this contract, they have 
made rapid progress, the building bein/r 50$ completed July 1. 


Miss Helen Mahoney, who was made regular clerk August 15, 

1935, was transferred to the Cheyenne post office May 1, 1937. 
Miss Maxine Hansen, who was made regular substitute August 1, 

1936, was promoted to regular clerk May 1, 1937, and is occupying 
the position formerly held by Miss Mahoney. 


Deaths . Automobile accidents were responsible for three deaths 
during the fiscal year including Charles A, Stewart of Livingston, 
Montana; Thomas A. Cavanaugh of Denver, Colorado; and Miles Elliott 
of Harlowtown , Montana. Two deaths resulted from falling off trucks, 
Howard Uooder of Gardiner ,. Montana and L. A. Thrower of Livingston, 
Montana. Heart failure accounted for four deaths, Mae H. Svevillus 
at Old 'Faithful lodge, a Mrs. Torpy at the Mammoth housekeeping 
cabins, George A. Murphy of Salt Lake City, Utah, and Dave S, 
Baker of Douglas, Arizona. One eight-year-old boy, Robert R. 'Walker, 
of Billings, Montana was killed when struck by a falling tree, while 
J. W. McFerson of Ogden, Utah died from burns received by falling 
into a hot pool while fishing near West Thumb, Two CCC enrollees 
died shortly after their arrival in camp, Dent ion Farmer of 
Hockingston, Kentucky at Lake camp from pneumonia, and Joseph Lyman 
Cave of Lietchfield, Kentucky at Nez. Perce camp of e-oilepsy. 

Births. The park's population was increased by five due to 
new arrivals in the families of park employees. On July 31 a 
daughter was born to ECU foreman John Lewis and wife at the Mammoth 
hospital; a son to park ranger and Mrs. Thomas Garry on August 18 
at Miles City, Montana; a daughter to park ranger and Mrs. Jack 
McNutt on August 28 at St. Anthony, Idaho; a son to storekeeper 
William Wright and wife at the Park hospital in Livingston in October; 
and a son to warehouseman Darrell Crumley and wife at the Park hospi- 
tal in Livingston on April 24. 

Visit ors-. A list of distinguished visitors during the 1936 
season included six U. S. Senators, Robert D. Carrey of Wyoming, 
Hattie W. Caraway of Arkansas, Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota, Carl 
Hayden of Arizona, James E. Murray of Montana, and Homer T. Bone of 
Washington; four members of 'the U. S. House of Representatives, 
Cleveland Dear of Louisiana, Roy L. Ayres of Montana, Orville 
Zimmerman of Missouri, and Oliver H. Cross of Texas; former 
President of the United States, Herbert Hoover, Colonel Frank Knox, 
Chicago nublisher and Republican candidate for President of the 
United States; Lawrence Richey, secretary to former President Hoover; 
Arno B. Cammerer, Director of the National Park Service; Ruth Bryan 
Owen Rohde, U. S. Minister to Denmark, and her husband, Captain 
Boerge Rohde; W. M. Groth, U. S. Minister to India; Ray Murohy, 


Commander of the American Legion; and Mrs. 0. W. Hahn, chairman 
of the National Rehabilitation Committee of the American Legion 
Auxiliary and later president of the American Legion Auxiliary. 

Foreign officials included Dr. Ferdinand Veverka, Czechoslo- 
vakian Minister to the United States, Washington, D. C. ; William 
Effey, past president of the Automobile Club of Queensland, 
Australia, -and a member of the board of directors; Sir Hassen 
Shurawardy, chief adninistrati\' r e end medical health officer, 
Indian Railways, Calcutta, India; Ju^n Zi.nser, department of 
forestry, game, and fish, Republic of Mexico; and Senor Luis 
Basualdo, Director of National Parks of the Argentine Re-public. 

Other distinguished visitors durin- the 1936 season in- 
cluded Ralph Budd, president of the C. 3. & Q,. Railway; Charles 
Dawes, former Vice-President of the United States; Rufus Dawes, 
ex-president of the Chicago Association of Ccra-rerce ; Major General 
George A. White, U. S. Array, 41st Division; V-F. H. Jackson, 
pioneer photographer of the 1071 Eg&yden survey -party; George W. 
Woodruff, director of the Coca Cola corporation; R, F. Black, 
president of the White Motor company; John Ames, publisher of 
the Chicago Journal of Commerce; Colonel Richard Lieber, presi- 
dent, National Conference on State Parks; Nicholas Biddle, board 
of game commissioners, Philadelphia; Nathan Straus, prominent 
New York merchant; Kenry R. Coons, New York financier; arid Robert 
C. Bruce, Paramount cameraman. 

Distinguished visitors during the 1957 season up to July 1 
included Honorable Leslie A. Miller, Governor of Wyoming; Horace 
M. Albright, vice-president of the U. S. Potash company and former 
superintendent of Yellowstone National Park and Director of the 
National Park Service; Mrs. Herbert Hoover, wife of former 
President Herbert Hoover; Zane Grey, noted author; Colonel v". S. 
Hurban, Czechoslovakian Minister to. the U. S. ; Watson Davis, 
director of Science Service; Herbert von Schoellenbach, cameraman 
of the General Photo Sales corporation; Major G-. F. Sehoff , 
mounted constable and Dominion game, fire, and fish officer, 
Canada; and Mrs. Alice Rogers Hager, Washington newspaperwoman 
and author. 



rUr-v_X^vV( JL £1* tt/<<Zuv~ WUAjtJLU^ PJ~CLSU3Al*L'^l'j> ^ Q<U$dbj ^ 

Prepared at the Western Museum Laboratories of 
the Rational Par\ Service with assistance provided by 
the Worl{ Projects Administration — Official Project 
]<[o. 65-2-o8'i6, Rational Youth Administration and 
Civilian Conservation Corps.